Mental health disorders manifest in specific ways with overlapping symptoms making accurate diagnoses difficult. However, the main classes of mental illness are as follows:
Neurodevelopmental disorders: an array of problems typically beginning in infancy or childhood including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other learning disorders.
Anxiety/panic disorder: involves intermittent and persistent attacks of extreme fear of adverse events or impending doom.
Bipolar disorder: cyclical swings between manic and depressive emotional states. The manic phase involves a period of intense activity and heightened emotions, and the depressive phase is characterized by lethargy and sadness.
Depression: usually defined by a chronic bad mood, feeling “down,” and a lack of interest or zest for daily life, as well as periods of lethargy and fatigue.
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: psychotic disorders cause detachment from reality — such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking and speech.
Obsessive-compulsive disorders: preoccupations, obsessions, or repetitive thoughts and actions. Examples include obsessive-compulsive disorder, hoarding disorder and hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).
Trauma and stress-related disorders: adjustment conditions where individuals have difficulty coping during or after a stressful event. Examples include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder.